Eksistensi Pandemik Covid-19 dan Pemberlakuan Fikih Darurat di Kabupaten Sinjai

Eksistensi Pandemik Covid-19 dan Pemberlakuan Fikih Darurat di Kabupaten Sinjai
Oleh : Muhammad Zulkarnain Mubhar

Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia (WHO) telah mengumumkan secara resmi bahwa penyakit Covid-19 atau lebih dikenal virus Corona sebagai pandemik (11/3/2020). Term “pandemik” merunjuk pada arti bahwa penyakit tersebut telah mewabah dan menjangkiti hampir seluruh penduduk dunia.

Dalam hitungan persentasi WHO,  suatu penyakit yang diakibatkan oleh wabah virus dan telah memasuki sekitar lebih dari 20% wilayah seluruh negara di dunia dengan peningkatan persentasi meninggal yang diakibatkan oleh virus tersebut meningkat hingga lebih dari 10 kali lipat dan terjadi di luar wilayah negara virus itu pertama kali mewabah, maka ditetapkanlah sebagai pandemik (darurat kesehatan global).

Kasus pertama yang ditemukan di Indonesia diumumkan langsung oleh Presiden RI (2/3/2020). Penemuan kasus pertama itu berselang 8 hari sebelum diumumkan secara resmi oleh WHO bahwa Covid-19 sebagai pandemik.

Hingga per 15 April 2020 dalam laporan Gugus Tugas Percepatan Penangan Covid-19 skala nasional melalui laman https://www.covid19.go.id, tercatat kasus covid-19 terkonfirmasi (positif) berada pada angka 5.136 orang. Dari seluruh provinsi di Indonesia, Sulawesi Selatan (Sulsel) berada pada tingkat ke-6 dengan kasus terkonfirmasi (positif) sebanyak 242 orang.

Sementara itu, berdasarkan data resmi Sulsel melalui laman https://covid19.sulselprov.go.id/, tercatat kasus covid-19 terkonfirmasi sebanyak 240 orang. Data tersebut merupakan data hasil update per Rabu 15 April 2020 pukul 18.30. Masih dalam laman yang sama, data kasus covid-19 terkonfirmasi (positif) tertinggi per Kabupaten/Kota se-Sulsel terjadi di Kota Makassar dengan jumlah terkonfirmasi covid-19 sebanyak 171 orang, disusul oleh Kab. Gowa dengan kasus terkonfirmasi sebanyak 22 orang. Lalu, Kab. Maros dengan kasus terkonfirmasi 19 orang, kemudian Kab. Sidrap 14 orang, dan Kab.Pinrang 3 orang.

Sementara itu, kasus terkonfirmasi covid-19 (positif) di Kab. Luwu, Luwu Timur, Parepare, Soppeng, dan Bulukumba masing-masing 1 orang. Kabupaten lain di Sulsel seperti: Bone, Sinjai, Palopo, Luwu Utara, Bantaeng, Tator, Toraja Utara, Bantaeng, Selayar, Barru, Wajo dan Jeneponto tidak ada kasus terkonfirmasi (positif) dari masing-masing Kabupaten tersebut sebanyak 0 orang.

Data resmi perkembangan situasi pandemik covid-19 tersebut, menjadi media konfirmasi dalam menentukan apakah di suatu kawasan muslim tertentu di Indonesua ini dan terkhusus Sulsel telah memasuki situasi “wajib” menerapkan fikih darurat akibat pandemik wabah atau tidak. Agar, keputusan yang diambil tidak bertentangan dengan kaidah-kaidah dan peraturan perundang-undangan yang berlaku.

Problem Pemberlakuan Fikih Darurat di Kabupaten Sinjai

Berdasarkan data resmi Satuan Tugas Tanggap Covid-19 Sulsel melalui laman resminya tentang catatan jumlah ODP, PDP, dan Positif untuk Kab. Sinjai, terlaporkan bahwa ODP sebanyak 152 orang, PDP 11 Orang dan POSITIF 0 orang.

Angka ODP dan PDP sebagaimana yang tercatat dalam laman resmi https://covid19.sulselprov.go.id/ tersebut untuk Sinjai  merupakan angka yang stagnan dan tidak bergerak secara signifikan –Wallahu A’lam jika kemudian ada upaya perbaikan data secara illegal-.

Sebab, berdasarkan pantauan harian penulis, sejak awal terbitnya laman tersebut hingga saat dituliskannya narasi ini, angka ODP dan PDP untuk di Sinjai dalam satu pekan terakhir tidak mengalami peningkatan yang signifikan.

Sehingga persentasi kedaruratan covid-19 di Sinjai masih terbilang terkendali, dalam artian bahwa kisaran persentasi keadaruratannya belum layak untuk dapat menerapkan aturan kedaruratan khusus sebagaimana yang dikenal dalam fikih Islam.

Disamping itu, muncul “dugaan” sementara bahwa semua warga Kabupaten Sinjai yang dinyatakan ODP Covid-19 sebagaimana dalam laporan resmi Provinsi Sulsel tersebut, telah melewati masa karantina resmi berdasarkan standar kesehatan Kementrian Kesehatan dan WHO dalam hubungannya dengan penanganan covid-19.

Belum lagi yang PDP  “diduga” pula telah memasuki masa penyembuhan diri dan bahkan “mungkin” telah mengakhiri masa karantina mandiri berdasarkan standar kesehatan dari dua organisasi resmi dunia dan negara tersebut. Selain itu, persentasi angka meninggal akibat covid-19 di Kabupaten Sinjai berada  pada angka 0% dan grafik percepatan penularan wabah covid-19 secara lokal, sangat jauh dari kata “signifikan”.

Berdasarkan analisa persentasi kedaruratan tersebut, maka seluruh kawasan di Sinjai secara lokal, tidak dan atau belum dapat dikatakan telah berada dalam zona kedaruratan yang sangat mengkhawatirkan dan memaksa diberlakukannya fikih darurat dalam Islam terhadap masyarakatnya, seperti keringanan meninggalkan salat jama’ah di masjid atau mushalla, mengganti salat jumat dengan salat zuhur, serta tidak menghadiri kegiatan keagamaan yang mengumpulkan orang banyak.

Jika, penetapan pemberlakuan fikih darurat terhadap penduduk muslim di Sinjai melalui Surat Edaran MUI Kab. SInjai dengan Nomor: 02/MUI-SJ/IV/2020 Tentang “Himbauan Kepada Umat Islam Terkait Pelaksanaan Kegiatan Keagamaan di Kabupaten Sinjai” yang penentuannya didasarkan pertama kali pada Fatwa MUI Pusat Nomor: 14 Tahun 2020 Tentang “Penyelenggaraan Ibadah Dalam Situasi Terjadi Wabah Covid-19”. Maka, MUI Kab. Sinjai telah melakukan kesalahan pembacaan, pemahaman dan implementasinya pada tingkat Kabupaten. Sebab, dalam fatwa MUI Pusat tersebut memuat poin yang perlu untuk dibaca dan difahami secara benar, serta menjadi dasar pertimbangan dalam menerapkan fikih darurat terkait pelaksanaan kegiatan ibadah selama masa pandemi Covid-19 di Kab. Sinjai, yakni:

1. Dalam kondisi penyebaran Covid-19 tidak terkendali di suatu kawasan yang mengancam jiwa, umat Islam tidak boleh menyelenggarakan salat Jum’at di kawasan tersebut, sampai keadaan menjadi normal kembali dan wajib menggantikannya dengan salat zuhur di tempat masing-masing. Demikian juga tidak boleh aktivitas ibadah yang melibatkan orang banyak dan diyakini dapat menjadi media penyebaran Covid-19, seperti jamaah salat lima waktu/rawatib, salat tarawih dan ied di masjid atau tempat umum lainnya, serta menghadiri pengajian umum dan mejelis taklim. (Baca Fatwa MUI Pusat Nomor: 14 Tahun 2020 Tentang Penyelenggaraan Ibadah Dalam Situasi Terjadi Wabah Covid-19,  Poin 4, Halaman 9);

2. Dalam kondisi penyebaran COVID-19 “terkendali”, Umat Islam “Wajib” menyelenggarakan salat Juma’at dan boleh menyelenggarakan aktivitas ibadah yang melibatkan orang banyak, seperti jamaah salat lima waktu/rawatib, salat tarawih dan ied di masjid  atau tempat umum lainnya, serta menghadiri pengajian umum dan majelis taklim dengan tetap menjaga diri agar tidak terpapar COVID-19. (Baca Fatwa MUI Pusat Nomor: 14 Tahun 2020 Tentang Penyelenggaraan Ibadah Dalam Situasi Terjadi Wabah Covid-19,  Poin 5., Halaman 9).

Dengan dasar petimbangan angka jumlah ODP, PDP dan Positif serta angka kematian dan percepatan penyebaran wabah SARS-Cov-2 di Kab. Sinjai, maka pada hakikatnya kondisi penyebaran Covid-19 di Kab. Sinjai dapat disebut “masih terkendali”.

Dengan demikian, maka seharusnya fatwa MUI yang patut diberlakukan atau diimplementasikan di Sinjai dalam bidang keagamaan adalah: Fatwa MUI Pusat Nomor. 14 Tahun 2020 Poin 5, yang menyebutkan:  “Dalam kondisi penyebaran COVID-19 “terkendali”, Umat Islam Wajib menyelenggarakan salat Juma’at dan boleh menyelenggarakan aktivitas ibadah yang melibatkan orang banyak, seperti jamaah salat lima waktu/rawatib, salat tarawih dan ied di masjid  atau tempat umum lainnya, serta menghadiri pengajian umum dan majelis taklim dengan tetap menjaga diri agar tidak terpapar Covid-19”.

Agar dapat terpenuhi pelaksanaan fatwa tersebut, justru MUI Kab. Sinjai “seharusnya” menerbitkan Panduan Pelaksanaan Kegiatan Keagamaan Dalam Kondisi Pandemi Covid-19 di Kabupaten Sinjai”. Dengan menyatakan bahwa karena keadaan penyebaran di Sinjai masih terkendali berdasarkan data resmi yang ada, maka demi kewaspadaan diri serta menjaga jiwa dari terpapar covid-19 karena dikhawatirkan adanya OTG (Orang Tanpa Gejala) di antara jama’ah, maka pelaksanaan kegiatan keagamaan di Sinjai dilaksanakan dengan ketentuan:

1. Setiap individu jama’ah wajib memastikan diri dalam kondisi sehat sebelum menghadiri atau mengikuti shalat jama’ah dan jum’at di masjid atau mushalla dan atau menghadiri kegiatan keagamaan lainnya yang dihadiri oleh kumpulan orang banyak dalam wilayah kabupaten sinjai;

2. Setiap individu jama’ah wajib menggunakan masker selama berada dalam area masjid, mushalla serta tempat kegiatan kegamaan yang melibatkan orang banyak dan tetap menggunakannya baik dalam keadaan shalat hingga berada dalam rumah;

3. Setiap pengurus masjid dan mushalla wajib memastikan keadaan seluruh sisi masjid dalam keadaan steril dan senantiasa dibersihkan dengan menggunakan cairan disinfektan sebelum dan sesudah pelaksanaan shalat berjamaah atau kegiatan kegamaan lainnya yang melibatkan banyak orang. Serta, menyediakan media cuci tangan pada setiap pintu masjid bagi seluruh jama’ah yang akan memasuki masjid;

4. Setiap jama’ah tidak diperkenankan melakukan kegiatan jabat tangan baik sebelum maupun sesudah pelaksanaan salat jama’ah atau kegiatan keagamaan yang dihadiri oleh banyak orang;

5. Memeriksa seluruh jam’ah yang memasuki areal masjid, mushalla, dan tempat kegiatan keagamaan yang mengumpulkan banyak orang yang dilakukan oleh tim medis kabupaten serta para relawan yang ditunjuk dengan pengawalan TNI, POLRI dan SATPOL PP Kabupaten Sinjai sesuai dengan standar protokol kesehatan sebagaimana yang telah ditetapkan oleh WHO dan Negara secara ketat;

6. Apabila keadaan penyebaran Covid-19 di sekitar wilayah masjid dan mushallah dan atau tempat kegiatan keagamaan dilaksanakan berdasarkan pantauan dinas kesehatan kabupaten tidak terkendali, maka seluruh umat Islam yang ada di sekitar masjid atau mushalla dan atau tempat kegiatan kegamaan tersediakan, wajib ditiadakan dan apabila ditemukan kumpulan orang banyak, maka aparat wajib membubarkannya

Petugas mengukur suhu tubuh warga sebelum salat Jumat di Masjid Jami’ Arriyadut Taqwa, Jakarta Selatan, Jumat (20/3/2020). [ ANTARA FOTO/Wahyu Putro]

Melalui keenam ketentuan pelaksanaan tersebut, maka tentu upaya pencegahan dan percepetan penanganan penyebaran Covid-19 di Kab. Sinjai, tetap terlaksana  dengan baik dan benar, serta sesuai dengan petunjuk protokol kesehatan dan tidak menabrak aturan agama serta kesepakatan para ulama Indonesia yang kredibel berdasarkan persetujuan mereka sebagaimana yang tertuang dalam Fatwa MUI Nomor 14 Tahun 2020.

Disamping itu tidak pula bertentangan dengan PERMENKES Nomor. 9 Tahun 2020 dan PP Nomor. 21 Tahun 2020 tentang Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar (PSBB) serta Standar Protokol Kesehatan. Sekaligus dapat mengimplementasikan kandungan makna dari enam kaidah fikih darurat dalam Islam, yaitu:

1. الضَّرَرُ يُزَال =

Suatu bahaya atau ancaman wajib untuk dibuang/dihilangkan

2. الضَّرُرَاتُ تُبِيْحُ المَحْظًوْرَاتِ =

Kondisi Darurat dapat mengalihkan bolehnya yang haram

3. مَا أُبِيْحَ لِلضَّرُوْرَةِ يُقَدَّرُ بِقَدَرِهَا=

keharaman yang boleh dilakukan dalam keadaan darurat harus disesuaikan dengan kadar kedaruratannya

4. دَرْأُ المَفَسِدِ مُقَدَّمٌ عَلَى جَلْبِ المَصَالِحِ:

mencegah terjadinya kerusakan didahulukan atas pelaksanaan maslahat.

5. إذَا تَعَارَضَ مَفْسَدَتَانِ أُرتُكِبَ أَخَفُّهًمَا ضَرَرًا =

Jika terjadi pertentangan antara dua kerusakan/bahaya yang mengancam, maka dilaksanakan yang paling ringan bahayanya di antara kedua bahaya tersebut.

6. المَشَقَّةُ تَجْلِبُ التَّيْسِيْرُ =

Keadaan yang susah atau payah dapat melahirkan kemudahan atau keringanan. 

(Lihat. al-Qawa’id al-Fiqhiyah, Karya ‘Abdul ‘Aziz Muhammad ‘Azzam, Cet. Darul Hadis, Kairo, halaman. 126-171. Lihat juga. Ilmu Ushulul Fiqhi, Karya ‘Abdul Wahhab Khallaf, Cet. Maktbah al-Da’wah al-Islamiyyah, Kairo, halaman, 207 – 210)

Jadi, Seharusnya MUI Sinjai dapat mempertahankan kharisma dan kedudukan organisasi dengan tidak mudah menetapkan dan memutuskan perkara keagamaan yang berimplikasi sosial dan berhubungan dengan Fikih Kontemporer dengan hanya berdasar pada pesanan penguasa dan kepentingan individual. Namun, dalam setiap keputusan itu harus berdasarkan Al-Qur’an, Sunnah, Ijma’ dan Qiyas, serta mengkorelasikannya dengan peraturan perundang-undangan yang berlaku yang tidak berseberangan dengan kaidah-kaidah syariat yang tetap.

Namun, apa yang hendak dikata “nasi telah menjadi bubur”, MUI Kabupaten Sinjai telah menyebarkan imbauannya ke seluruh masyarakat Sinjai melalui Surat Edaran Nomor: 02/MUI-SJ/IV/2020 Tentang Himbauan Kepada Umat Islam Terkait Pelaksanaan Kegiatan Keagamaan di Kabupaten Sinjai dan  “terlanjur” dijadikan oleh Pemda sebagai rujukan dalam upaya menabrak aturan PERMENKES Nomor. 9 Tahun 2020 dan PP Nomor. 21 Tahun 2020 tentang Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar (PSBB) dengan dikeluarkannya Surat Edaran Nomor. 016 Tahun 2020 yang muatan isinya mengandung makna Pemberlakuan Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar (PSBB) secara “illegal” yang akan berakibat pada sanksi sosial baik di dunia maupun di akhirat. Maka kami sebagai masyarakat Sinjai yang muslim harus menjadi saksi akan keputusan keduanya di dunia dan di akhirat kelak.

Narasi ini tidak berkedudukan sebagai fatwa, melainkan hanya sebatas nasehat kepada sesama Muslim khususnya kepada para Ulama dan Umara’ di Kabupaten Sinjai berdasarkan keumuman Hadis Nabi Saw:

“الدِّينُ النَّصِيحَةُ قُلْنَا لِمَنْ قَالَ لِلَّهِ وَلِكِتَابِهِ وَلِرَسُولِهِ وَلِأَئِمَّةِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَعَامَّتِهِمْ” (رواه مسلم)

Artinya:

Dari Tamim ad-Dari, bahwa Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam bersabda: “Agama itu adalah nasihat.” Kami bertanya, “Nasihat untuk siapa?” Beliau shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam menjawab: “Untuk Allah, kitab-Nya, Rasul-Nya, dan para pemimpin kaum muslimin, serta kaum awam mereka.”

Semoga Allah swt, mengampuni dosa-dosa kita dan merahmati, serta mengaruniakan taufiq dan hidayah kepada kita dalam menjalankan dan melaksanakan syariat sesuai dengan tuntunan Al-Qur’an dan Sunnah  Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam secara baik dan benar. Serta, menjauhkan kita dari berbagai bahaya dan ancaman yang dapat merusak jiwa dan lingkungan keberagamaan kita. Aamiin!

redaksi

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